Selenium: WebDriver Wait


driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(10, TimeUnit.SECONDS);


  • creates a method that polls for a successful findElement() response every 5s - for 30s
  • wait.until(loop until no exception/false returned){
    • create an 'on-the-fly' method
      • create a FluentWait wait & set its properties
      • try findElement(By) while response is NoSuchElementFound or null
        • once true, return WebElement

requires import:


Selenium: PageObjectModel vs Object Repository

Great explanation on the difference between POM and 'Data Driven' Object Repository

Testing Drupal all but requires POM due to the challenging element selector requirements & the need for multiple actions against the element/page to access it or interact with it.

Namely CKEditor injects an iframe inside a textarea and the need for JavaScriptExecutioner to update the text() of the embedded body tag.

Bash: sed for String Substitution

using sed to replace strings in text files without a text editor

sed 's/sedtest/seedtest/' sedtest.txt > seedtest.txt && mv seedtest.txt sedtest.txt
  • s = substitute
  • find = sedtest
  • replace with = seedtest
  • sed won't alter the source file, but a destination file can be specified
  • if one wants to effectively update the SOURCE file, simply append the command with 'mv'

see also:


Sed: Search/Replace to edit files inside Docker containers

root@c460eb9bda94:/usr/local/apache2# sed 's/LogLevel warn/LogLevel debug/' conf/httpd.conf > conf/httpd.conf.changed && mv conf/httpd.conf.changed conf/httpd.conf
  1. Search/Replace in  conf/httpd.conf
  2. Pipe to conf/httpd.conf.changed
  3. move conf/httpd.conf.changed to conf/httpd.conf

Selenium Webdriver's Location In A TestFramework Stack

  • A WebBrowser is a front-end to a website http server
  • A WebDriver is a front-end to a specific WebBrowser that controls interaction with a website
  • Selenium-Server is a front-end to a WebDriver that provides API calls to interact the WebDriver over HTTP
    • Theoretically, Selenium Server provides a library of actions/listeners/utils and the WebDriver provides the custom browser implementation
    • Selenium Server does nothing without a WebDriver
  • Language bindings provide a language-specific API and interface to Selenium Server API
    • The language bindings expose/translate API calls to Selenium Server
    • Available Selenium Server functions are dependent on the Language Binding
    • Language bindings can differ in their class hierarchies, API structure, and available functions.
  • SeleniumCore = Webdriver: chromedriver.exe, iedriver.exe, geckodriver.exe
  • SeleniumServer = selenium-se
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